ye are godsDe 6:14 Ye shall not go after other gods (Supreme beings), of the gods (Supreme beings) of the people which are round about you;

De 13:13 Certain men, the children of Belial, are gone out from among you, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods (Supreme beings), which ye have not known;

Jud 18:24 And he said, Ye have taken away my gods (Supreme beings) which I made, and the priest, and ye are gone away: and what have I more? and what is this that ye say unto me, What aileth thee?

1Ki 18:25 And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal, Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; and call on the name of your gods (Supreme beings), but put no fire under.

2Ch 13:8 And now ye think to withstand the kingdom of Afrika in the hand of the sons of David; and ye be a great multitude, and there are with you golden calves, which Jeroboam made you for gods (Supreme beings).

2Ch 13:9 Have ye not cast out the Leaders of Afrika, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and have made you Leaders after the manner of the nations of other lands? so that whosoever cometh to consecrate himself with a young bullock and seven rams, the same may be a priest of them that are no gods (Supreme beings).

Ps 82:6 I have said, Ye are gods (Supreme beings); and all of you are children of the most High.

Isa 41:23 Shew the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are gods (Supreme beings): yea, do good, or do evil, that we may be dismayed, and behold it together.

Isa 42:17 They shall be turned back, they shall be greatly ashamed, that trust in graven images, that say to the molten images, Ye are our gods (Supreme beings).

Ho 14:3 Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses: neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye are our gods (Supreme beings): for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy.

Joh 10:34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods (Supreme beings)?

Ac 19:26 Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that they be no gods (supreme beings), which are made with hands:

Ga 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods (Supreme beings).

Phoenix AZ this event is for those who are ready for change— Today @ 12-2pm 10/29/2017 Are you ready to unite?


In a meeting I had recently with an editor of the Pensacola News Journal, I was asked if I thought there was unity in the black community. My answer was an absolute no! I went on to tell her that there has been no semblance of unity in the black community since so-called integration took place.

Much, if not all, of our heritage, including our togetherness, and many of our institutions have been mostly lost or destroyed. With the exception of one or two organizations, we pretty much say nothing and do nothing to effectively hold on to our rich heritage in the Greater Pensacola/Northwest Florida area. We are probably the most divided people in the area, when, in fact, it should be the opposite. We don’t support each other nearly as much as we should, in business or anything else. Maybe an exception is the black church. Maybe!

Whites, Asians and other minorities have their differences also. But the one thing they don’t have a problem with is “the crabs in the basket” mentality from which we blacks suffer.

We will run downtown in a heartbeat and “sell each other out” just to gain temporary favor from the white conservative power structure in the city of Pensacola, while realizing but not caring about the detriment it does to the African-American community and the divisiveness it promotes.

We are very envious and jealous of each other especially if it appears that one or more of us are climbing the ladder to success.

A group of close friends I grew up with meet once a month for lunch. At our last get-together, I expressed disappointment about how blacks continue to criticize and negate one another at practically every turn, trying to gain “one up” on the other. My friend simply replied that “Unity is the key to our success.”

As much as I detest racism in any form, a great deal of racism is practiced by “us against us” with little signs of any change coming anytime soon.

I was also told by another friend recently that the next time I enter any retail establishment run by foreigners in the black community to notice how they communicate with each other after transacting business with their clients. My friend said that when they finish speaking with you in English, they immediately go back to speaking to each other in their native language in the customers’ presence. My friend asserts that their language is a way of staying in unity with each other. After thinking about his remark, it made a lot of sense to me.

With all that African-Americans have endured in this nation and in Pensacola/Escambia County, Florida, it would seem to me that we would be the first race of people to unite and move forward. But we remain desperately divided and fragmented.

Another example of spreading and creating division in the black community is the recent edition of local weekly newspaper, The Independent News, printing a list of the most powerful leaders in the black and white communities. As the publisher of Out Front Magazine, a bimonthly publication targeting African Americans, for the past 24 years, I can say unequivocally that The Independent News and its publisher know nothing about the African-American community or anything about its real leadership. It’s just another case of whites wanting to select and dictate who our leaders are, a situation which in many ways further divides an already divided community.

One form of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different outcome. Until we truly unite as a people in the black community, according to my friend at our luncheon, we can expect to continue to be left out of almost everything.

All that I have said in this Viewpoint regarding a failure to unite most definitely includes me. I’m just as guilty as others in the black community, which means I need to “tighten up my game” on unity. I hope a great majority of others will do the same.

Admiral LeRoy is the founder and publisher emeritus of Out Front Magazine and can be reached at (850) 453-4835 or

Black, American, and Armed Ira Berkley July 6, 2017 With concerns about police violence and white supremacist groups mounting, some black gun owners have decided to take charge of their own safety.

Scott Takushi/Pioneer Press via AP, File

An activist hangs a sign on the gate of the Minnesota Governor’s Residence in St. Paul.

African Americans who exercise their Second Amendment right to bear arms find themselves caught between the two irreconcilable narratives of gun rights and racial justice. One storyline justifies African American deaths to assuage whites’ fears of violence by blacks, and the other regularly forces blacks to prove that they are reaching for a wallet or a driver’s license, not a gun.

What is irrefutable, however, is that a black person carrying a legal weapon can face deadly consequences. On July 6, 2016, a police officer pulled over Philando Castile for a routine traffic stop in St. Anthony, a suburb of St. Paul, Minnesota. In a video live-streamed by Castile’s girlfriend, Diamond Reyes, Castile calmly told Officer Jeronimo Yanez that he is a licensed gun owner and has a firearm in the car, facts that he did not have to disclose under Minnesota law. Yanez told Castile not to reach for the weapon and Castile and Reynolds both repeatedly reassured Yanez that he would not do so. Moments later, Yanez fired at Castile.

A jury acquitted Yanez of murder last month.

The senselessness of Castile’s death is more than a travesty—it strikes real fear into law-abiding black gun owners like Louis Dennard, an African American Army veteran and a gun-owner for more than 30 years. Dennard’s answer to this deadly conundrum is the African American Gun Heritage Club, the Minnesota chapter of National African American Gun Association (NAAGA). “We are a civil rights organization focused on self-preservation of our community through armed protection and community building,” reads the national association’s vision statement. Dennard purchased his first handgun because he worried about people shooting in movie theaters and other crimes. Now, the police are “a portion of society [that] you have to worry about,” he says.

African Americans have carried guns for decades to protect their communities. During Reconstruction, Southern states enacted Black Codes that prohibited African Americans from owning guns, while white vigilante groups like the Ku Klux Klan invaded black settlements to seize weapons from newly freed slaves. Many years later, black gun owners protected civil rights activists who embraced nonviolence. Martin Luther King owned guns in the early years of the civil rights movement and supported the right to bear arms. The issue later disappeared from public discussions until the late-1960s when the Black Panthers called for African Americans to exercise their Second Amendment rights to protect their neighborhoods from racist police officers.


Although Dennard has seen an increase in fears about police violence within the black gun-owning community, he believes that the worries of the black gun owners have not been embraced by groups like the National Rifle Association (NRA) or individual white gun owners. The NRA has had little to say about police brutality or the rights of black gun owners. Two days after Castile’s death, the NRA released a vague statement that failed to even mention Castile’s name.

The NRA did not respond to a request for comment.

Dennard, who is not an NRA member, feels that the group’s “rubber stamp” response typifies how the NRA ignores black gun owners’ concerns. Moreover, white gun owners are not tuned in to national conversations surrounding race and police brutality. A new Pew Research Center study found that politically conservative and/or Republican-identified white men are the most likely to own guns, with both black and Hispanic Americans about half as likely as whites to have a gun at home.

Not surprisingly, there are stark differences between the attitudes of gun owners and anti-police brutality and racial justice activists.

Not surprisingly, there are stark differences between the attitudes of gun owners and anti-police brutality and racial justice activists. A 2013Racism, Gun Ownership, and Gun Control” study published by the National Institutes of Health found that, for American whites, every 1 percentage point increase in stereotypical beliefs about blacks meant a 50 percent increase in the odds of having a gun at home. The report also found that whites who hold negative stereotypes about blacks often oppose gun control policies and keep a firearm at home.

Black Americans overall and Democrats, the groups most likely to “strongly support” Black Lives Matter, are also likely to support tighter gun control restrictions. Dennard does not find comfort in public conversations on racism and police violence in the Black Lives Matter movement. Dennard, who describes himself as more “anti-bad-policing” than “anti police,” believes that conflict resolution and de-escalation is the key to quelling police violence. Tactics like blockading streets and chanting are ineffective, he says. “[BLM activists] are different than their parents and grandparents that marched during the 60s,” Dennard says. “They’re loose cannons and they haven’t helped.

Today black support for gun ownership is markedly lower in black communities than in white communities. Where does that leave Dennard and other black gun owners who do not feel that they fit in with gun-rights conservatives or the pro-gun control progressives? They have decided to band together with like-minded people. Since Trump’s inauguration, NAAGA’s membership has doubled, and Dennard says that there has been a spike in interest in his own Minnesota chapter in recent months, with some new members citing Trump’s “craziness” and those who put him in office as reason for arming themselves.


7 Things I’ve Learned As A Black Woman Who Dates White Men

My dating resume is pretty typical; it consists of a few long term relationships and a couple meaningless flings. If one were to go through each relationship in my past however, it would become obvious that all of my past love interests except for one have been white. (If you asked my family members, they would say that the one doesn’t even really count because he looked white and had a British accent, despite being part-Jamaican.) This would normally be a fine dating pattern, but the fact that I’m a black hispanic woman does bring up the question as to why I haven’t dated other races including my own. Growing up, my cousins would tease me relentlessly for dating white men, but I didn’t let it discourage me enough to abstain from dating them. I should note that my cousins weren’t any less selective; they solely dated black men.

I will readily admit that part of me does fear I’ve missed out on an essential life experience by not dating my own race. I wonder if my life would be drastically different or if race truly isn’t a huge factor when it comes to love. I also know that at the end of the day, my heart has made its choice and I have to respect that.

Over the years I’ve thought about the potential reasons as to why most of the men in my past have been white and I have come up with a list of reasons why I may have fallen into this pattern:

1. I was surrounded by white people.

 First of all, I grew up in McLean, Virginia. Although the DC metropolitan area is fairly diverse, the student body at my old high school is currently 70.25% white and 2.99% African-American. The demographic was probably just as skewed when I attended school. McLean H.S. was a great school — don’t get me wrong, I have zero regrets about my time there — but it just didn’t really give me the opportunity to meet a ton of people from other races to potentially date. I never had that early experience of being with someone that was both racially similar to me and also compatible with me. People would automatically assume that the two black kids of opposite genders in class should pair up, but I’m actually proud of my 16 year-old self for breaking the norm and dabbling in the interracial pool.

2. I am still surrounded by white people.

 You can take a girl out of McLean but…just kidding. I do have friends of other races, but my friend group is primarily white. I love them and have great experiences with them, but it does affect where we may go out on weekends and what kind of guys we attract into our circle. We tend to go to trendy bars, but I almost feel as though we aren’t “in the know” when it comes to venues that are a little more diverse and off the beaten path. I willingly take some of the blame; I don’t actively seek out different scenes because I’ve gotten comfortable going to the usual locations, that’s on me. I often think about what my life would be like if I had a more racially diverse group of friends, but who knows, maybe it wouldn’t be all that different after all.

3. Black men are confused by me.

 I don’t know what it is about me, but it’s almost as though black men can sense that I’m not really familiar with dating my own race. On the off chance that a black male does approach me, usually by the time I open my mouth and share my background, they don’t really know how to relate to me. I don’t think that’s a bad thing, but it does hinder any chance of me getting to know them any further. I don’t think of myself as some mythical unicorn, but I am complex and it takes a lot more than a similar racial profile for there to be a connection. I also wonder if black men instinctively pull away from someone like me who has mostly white friends and is unaware of certain cultural nuances. I can’t fault them for seeking out someone with similar friend groups and interests, but once again, it takes me out of the running.

4. My experience with black men is mostly negative.

 When I’m walking down a street in D.C. and I approach a group of black men, I can almost guarantee that something will be said to me and it usually isn’t anything that makes me feel good about myself or comfortable in the situation. Out of all the men in the mixing bowl of D.C., black men have by far made me feel the most uncomfortable and unsafe in this city. When I’m walking alone, I usually get comments about how I look that day or what they would like to do to me. If I’m walking with my white boyfriend, that’s when they get really imaginative and throw insults at mostly me for ‘betraying my race.” I wear sunglasses most of the time to avoid eye contact and I catch countless black men looking me up and down and making me feel completely naked. Some people would perhaps find this flattering, but rest assured that the way they look at me would make most women run for the hills. While I realize that these men aren’t representative of the race as a whole, it does make it even more difficult for me to view them as romantic potentials.

5. I struggle with seeing black males as suitable partners.

 I realize that this is dangerous territory, but let me explain: In addition to the negative interactions with strangers, most of the black men in my life, my father included, haven’t really been favorable romantic partners. The reoccurring themes of infidelity, abuse, and lack of financial stability all permeate my memories and they do affect my ability to trust black men. I have always said that I’m open to meeting anyone, but if I’m being honest, I do think that black men come into the picture with a lot more to prove to me than men of other races. I realize that’s unfair and it’s something that I have to overcome, but it will take some time. I think of cousins and specifically my brother who are genuinely great guys and I do feel incredibly guilty and sad that I feel this way regarding my own race. I want them to be viewed as suitable partners and to be given a fair opportunity when it comes to love. I hope to work through my general perception of the black male and to also better separate my interactions with strangers versus my interactions with potential love interests.

6. My family is accepting of me dating any race.

 Despite the teasing and mentions of my boyfriends coming down with ‘jungle fever,’ I always knew that my family would support me if the person I dated treated me with respect and for that I am thankful. I know various friends of mine who have parents that are still not exactly okay with their children dating outside of their own race. I’ve considered myself very lucky in that I never felt pressure to choose one race over another. I could simply meet anyone and see if we were compatible. Dating is hard enough without the added pressure of worrying about appeasing a family’s racial preference.

7. It’s rewarding.

 The interracial relationships that I’ve been in have taught me more than I think I could have learned in monoracial relationships. Dating someone of a different race gives you the opportunity to learn about their culture and values; it also provides you with a more intimate insight into their racial differences. My current boyfriend is learning what goes into managing black hair (a helluva lot, y’all) and I’ve also shared various Panamanian traditions with him. He has in turn shared his cultural background with me as he is part Lebanese. I find the cultural exchange to be interesting and incredibly beneficial to the relationship as a whole.

Robert Sengstacke Abbott

Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Robert s abbott.jpg

Abbott circa 1919.
Born November 24, 1870
St. Simons Island, Georgia, U.S.
Died February 29, 1940 (aged 69)[1]
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Cause of death Bright’s disease
Resting place Lincoln Cemetery
(Blue Island, Illinois)
Nationality American
Alma mater Hampton University
Kent College of Law
  • Lawyer
  • Newspaper publisher
  • Editor
Years active 1901–1940
Known for Founder and publisher of The Chicago Defender newspaper and the Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic
Spouse(s) Helen Thornton Morrison
(m. 1918; div. 1933)
Edna Brown Denison
(m. 1934–40)
Parent(s) Flora Butler
Thomas Abbott
Relatives John H. Sengstacke (nephew)[2][3]
Robert A. Sengstacke (great–nephew)

Robert Sengstacke Abbott (November 24, 1870 – February 29, 1940[4]) was an African-American lawyer and newspaper publisher and editor. Abbott founded The Chicago Defender, which grew to have the highest circulation of any black-owned newspaper in the country. An early adherent of the Bahá’í religion in the United States, Abbott founded the Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic in 1929, which has developed into a celebration for youth, education and African–American life in Chicago, Illinois.



Early life and education

Abbot was born on November 24, 1870, in St. Simons Island, Georgia (although some sources state Savannah, Georgia[5]) to freedman parents, who had been enslaved before the American Civil War. The Sea Islands were a place of the Gullah people, an African-descended ethnic group who continued stronger aspects of African cultures than among African Americans in other areas of the South. His father Thomas Abbott died when Robert was a baby.

His widowed mother Flora Abbott (née Butler) met and married John Sengstacke, an American mixed-race man of unusual background who had recently come to the US from Germany. His parents were Tama, a freed slave woman of African descent, and her husband Herman Sengstacke, a German sea captain who had a regular route from Hamburg to Savannah. In the Georgia port city in 1847, Herman saw a slave sale. He was so distressed he bought the freedom of Tama, a young woman from West Africa. They married in Charleston, South Carolina, before returning to Georgia, where their interracial marriage was prohibited. Their mixed-race son John was born the next year and a daughter in 1848. Tama died soon after their daughter was born, and Herman took the children back to Germany to be raised by family.[6]

John met the young black widow Flora, who had a year-old son Robert. He cared for Robert as if he were his own. Together the couple had seven children together; their family crossed rigid racial boundaries. Robert was given the middle name Sengstacke to mark his belonging in the family. John Sengstacke had become a Congregationalist missionary as an adult; he wrote, “There is but one church, and all who are born of God are members of it. God made a church, man made denominations. God gave us a Holy Bible, disputing men made different kinds of disciples.”[7] Sengstacke became a teacher, determined to improve the education of black children. He also became a publisher, founding the Woodville Times, based in what was then a town named Woodville; it was later annexed by the city of Savannah, Georgia. Given the industrialization under way in the country, from 1892 to 1896, Abbott studied the printing trade at Hampton Institute (now Hampton University), a historically black college in Virginia. At Hampton, he sang with the Hampton Choir and Quartet, which toured nationally.[5] He earned a law degree from Kent College of Law, Chicago, in 1898.


Abbott tried to set up a law practice, working for a few years in Gary, Indiana; and Topeka, Kansas. He returned home to Georgia for a period, then went back to Chicago, where he could see changes arriving with thousands of new migrants from the rural South.

Chicago Defender

After settling in Chicago, in 1905 Abbott founded The Chicago Defender newspaper with an initial investment of ¢25 (equivalent to $7 in 2016).[8][9] He started printing in a room at his boardinghouse; his landlady encouraged him, and he later bought her an 8-room house.

He wanted to push for job opportunities and social justice, and was eager to persuade blacks to leave the segregated, Jim Crow South for Chicago. A key part of his distribution network was made up of African-American railroad porters, who were highly respected among blacks. (By 1925 they organized a union as the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters). They often sold or distributed the paper on trains. Defender circulation reached 50,000 by 1916; 125,000 by 1918; and more than 200,000 by the early 1920s. Credited with contributing to the Great Migration of rural southern blacks to Chicago, the Defender became the most widely circulated black newspaper in the country. It was known as “America’s Black Newspaper.” Its success resulted in Abbott becoming one of the first self-made millionaires of African-American descent; his business expanded as African Americans moved to the cities and became an urbanized, northern population. From the early 20th century through 1940, 1.5 million blacks moved to major cities in the North and Midwest.

They were eager to know about conditions, to find housing, and to learn more about their new lives in cities. Most were from rural areas of the South. From 1890 to 1908 all the southern states had passed constitutions or laws that raised barriers to voter registration and effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. They were utterly closed out of the political systems. Schools and other public facilities reserved for blacks were typically underfunded and ill-maintained. Legislatures imposed Jim Crow conditions, producing facilities for blacks that were “separate” but never “equal” (referring to the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case, in which the US Supreme Court ruled that segregated facilities, such as railroad cars providing “separate but equal” conditions, were constitutional). The northern and midwestern industrial centers, where blacks could vote and send children to school, were recruiting workers based on expansion of manufacturing and infrastructure to supply the US’s expanding population as well as the war in Europe, which started in 1914. The Pennsylvania Railroad and others were expanding at a rapid rate across the North, needing workers for construction and later to serve the train passengers.

The Defender told stories of earlier migrants to the North, giving hope to disenfranchised and oppressed people in the South of other ways to live. Abbott, through his writings in the Chicago Defender, expressed those stories and encouraged people to leave the South for the North. He even set a date of May 15, 1917, for what he called ‘The Great Northern Drive’ to occur.[10] In his weekly, he showed pictures of Chicago and had numerous classifieds for housing. In addition, Abbott wrote about how awful a place the South was to live in comparison to the idealistic North. Abbott’s words described the North as a place of prosperity and justice.[11] This persuasive writing, “thereby made this journal probably the greatest stimulus that the migration had,”.[12][11]

Sengstacke was a fighter, a defender of rights. He listed nine goals as the Defender′s ‘Bible:’

  1. American race prejudice must be destroyed;
  2. Opening up all trade unions to blacks as well as whites;
  3. Representation in the President’s Cabinet’
  4. Hiring black engineers, firemen, and conductors on all American railroads, and to all jobs in government;
  5. Gaining representation in all departments of the police forces over the entire United States;
  6. Government schools giving preference to American citizens before foreigners;
  7. Hiring black motormen and conductors on surface, elevated, and motor bus lines throughout America;
  8. Federal legislation to abolish lynching; and
  9. Full enfranchisement of all American citizens.[13]

The Chicago Defender not only encouraged people to migrate north for a better life, but to fight for their rights once they got there. The slogan of the paper and the first goal was “American race prejudice must be destroyed.”[14] Sengstacke openly discussed African-American history in his articles, including its difficult issues. He wrote, “Miscegenation began as soon as the African slaves were introduced into the colonial population and continues unabated to this day…. What’s more, the opposition to intermarriage has heightened the interest and solidified the feelings of those who resent the injunction of racial distinction in their private and personal affairs.”.[15] He believed that laws restricting personal choice in a mate violated the constitution and that the “decision of two intelligent people to mutual love and self-sacrifice should not be a matter of public concern.”.[16] Abbott also published a short-lived periodical called Abbott’s Monthly. The Defender actively promoted the northward migration of Black Southerners, particularly to Chicago; its columns not only reported on, but encouraged the Great Migration.

Bahá’í Faith

In 1912, Abbott met `Abdu’l-Bahá, head of the Bahá’í Faith, through covering a talk of his during his stay in Chicago during his journeys in the West. By 1924 Abbott and his wife were listed as attending Bahá’í events in Chicago.[7] After inventing the fictional character “Bud Billiken” with David Kellum for articles in the Defender, Abbott established the Bud Billiken Club. In 1929 Abbott and Kellum founded the Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic. It became an occasion for African Americans to celebrate their pride and connections[17]

Abbott was seeking an atmosphere free of race prejudice. Even in religious communities, he sometimes found that mixed-race African Americans who were light-skinned sometimes also demonstrated prejudice against those who were darker. Abbott officially joined the Bahá’í Faith in 1934. He had found that its convention to elect its National Spiritual Assembly seemed free of prejudice.[7][18][19]

Final years and death

In 1919, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden appointed Abbott to the state Race Relations Commission. The commission conducted studies about the changes resulting from the Great Migration; in one period, 5,000 African Americans were arriving in the city every week. The Commission collected data to assess the population and published the book, The Negro in Chicago.[5] Though some of his stepfather Sengstacke’s relatives in Germany became Nazis in the 1930s and later, Abbott continued correspondence and economic aid to those who had accepted him and his father’s family. He also assisted descendants of Captain Charles Stevens, the former owner of his enslaved birth father before emancipation. With his wealth, Abbott aided the Stevens descendants in Georgia during the Depression, and paid for the education of their children.[7] Abbott died of Bright’s disease in 1940 in Chicago.[20] He was buried in Lincoln Cemetery in Blue Island, Illinois. His will left the newspaper in the control of his nephew, John Henry Sengstacke.


See also




  1. “Robert S. Abbott, 69, A Chicago Publisher. Negro Newspaper Founder Was on Permanent Fair Board”. New York Times. March 1, 1940. Retrieved November 27, 2010. Robert Sengstacke Abbott, founder and publisher of The Chicago Defender, Negro weekly newspaper, died today in his home here after an illness of several …

Further reading


  • Blue, Jr., John T. “Review: The Black Mr. Hearst.” The Journal of Negro Education 25.2 (1956): 149-51. JSTOR. Web. November 17, 2009. <>.
  • Buck, Christopher. “The Baha’i ‘Race Amity’Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert S. Abbott.” Baha’i Studies Review 17.1 (2012): 3-46. online
  • DeSantis, Alan D. “Selling the American dream myth to black southerners: The Chicago defender and the great migration of 1915–1919.” Western Journal of Communication 62.4 (1998): 474-511.
  • Gebo, Dora R. “Review: [untitled].” The Journal of Negro History 41.1 (1956): 89-90. JSTOR. Web. November 17, 2009. <>.
  • Ottley, Roi. The Lonely Warrior: The Life and Times of Robert S. Abbott (Regnery, 1955)



Largest African-parade in the American nation.

The Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic (also known as The Bud Billiken Day Parade) is an annual parade held since 1929[3] in Chicago, Illinois, United States; it is the largest African parade in the American nation. Held annually on the second Saturday in August,[4][5]The parade route travels through the Bronzeville and Washington Park[6]neighborhoods on the city’s south side. Robert S. Abbott, the founder and publisher of the Chicago Defender, created the fictional character of Bud Billiken, which he featured in a column in his paper. David Kellum, co-founder of the Bud Billiken Club and longtime parade coordinator[7][8][9] suggested the parade as a celebration of African-American life. Since its beginning, the parade has featured celebrities, politicians, businessmen, civic organizations and youth. It is considered the second largest parade in the United States,[10][11][12][13][14] whose focus is on celebrating youth, education and African-American life. The parade is also cited as the “back-to-school” celebration, marking the end of summer vacation and resuming of school for Chicago’s youth.[15][16][17]



Chicago Department of Human Resource float in the 1973 parade. Photo by John H. White.

Barack Obama float for 2004 U.S. Senate race in the 2004 parade.

Miss Black Illinois in the 2004 parade.

U.S. Navy band marches in the 2008 parade.

Anti-violence group for a Chicago high school in the 2008 parade.

Hillcrest High School marching band in the 2008 parade.

Bud Billiken is a fictional character created in 1923 by Abbott, who had been considering adding a youth section to the Chicago Defender newspaper. While dining at a Chinese restaurant he noticed a Billiken. Some of the early Billiken columns were written by Willard Motley, who later became a prominent novelist. During the early 1930s, names of international youth were listed in the “Bud Billiken” section of the newspaper every week. Between 1930–34, approximately 10,000 names appeared and were archived in the Carter G. Woodson Regional Library of the Chicago Public Library.[18]

During the Great Depression, Abbott featured the Bud Billiken character in his newspaper as a symbol of pride, happiness and hope for black residents.[19] The character gained prominence in a comic strip and the Chicago Defender newspaper.[19] Although the character was created in 1923, the parade did not begin until 1929, when David Kellum initiated it as a celebration of the “unity in diversity for the children of Chicago”. It has since grown to become a locally televised event and the second largest parade in the nation.[18]

The parade, which began on August 11, 1929,[20] now includes politicians, beauty queens, celebrities, musical performers, and dozens of marching, tumbling and dancing groups.[19] It has grown from a locally sponsored event to one with major corporate presence and is seen as a signal of the impending end of summer and beginning of the new school year.[19] As such the parade sponsors raise money for college scholarships for local youth.[19] The parade route has changed over the years. The original route was along Michigan Avenue beginning at 31st Street, then turned east into Washington Park. Complaints for north-south traffic flow caused rerouting the parade route to South Parkway (now named Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive), which runs directly into the park. At various times, street repairs have necessitated use of the Michigan route, but the current route is now the King Drive route.[20] Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll of Amos ‘n’ Andy were the first guests in the first parade. Robert S. Abbott led the first parade in his Rolls Royce. Dr. Marjorie Stewart Joyner, president of the Chicago Defender Charities, Inc., organized the parade for over 50 years. Numerous high-profile celebrities and dignitaries have attended the parade over the years, including U.S. President Harry S. Truman[21], Michael Jordan, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, Duke Ellington, Adelaide Hall,[22] Oprah Winfrey, Diana Ross, Lena Horne, Ethel Waters, Cab Calloway, Paul Robeson, Chaka Khan and Billie Holiday.[19][20] Truman rode alongside John H. Sengstacke, who was Abbott’s nephew and took over the Chicago Defender in 1948, and Mayor Richard J. Daley in the 1956 Parade.[23] Recent parades have featured popular musical acts as concert performers at the post-parade picnic. In 2006, approximately 26 million people saw the parade,[24] including 25 million television viewers and 1.2 million attendees.[5] The 2006 parade included 74,000 participants and 160 floats and vehicles.[5] The 2008 parade was dedicated to actor and comedian Bernie Mac (star of The Bernie Mac Show)[25] and a native of Chicago; he died an hour before the start of the parade. In 1993, a request by a black LGBT group to participate in the parade was declined by the organizers. Following legal action and the involvement of Lambda Legal, the Ad Hoc Committee of Proud Black Lesbians and Gays was allowed to participate in the parade the following year.[26][27]


The parade has been televised for over 35 years, beginning in 1978 on WGN-TV; which broadcast the parade until 2012. WCIU-TV covered the parade beginning in 2012 after it was canceled from WGN-TV but later canceled it in 2014.[28]WLS-TV has been broadcasting the parade since 1984. The 88th Annual Parade took place on August 12, 2017.[24] BET and Centric premiered the parade on their networks in 2012.[29]

Restructuring (2017)

The Chicago Defender Charities underwent a major restructuring in 2017. Myiti Sengstacke–Rice is Board President of the Chicago Defender Charities and Bud Billiken Parade Chair. Sengstacke–Rice is the great-grandniece of Robert Sengstacke Abbott, granddaughter of John Herman Henry Sengstacke, founder of the Chicago Defender Charities and daughter of the late famed photojournalist, Robert Abbott Sengstacke. Chez Smith is the SVP of Operations and the parade coordinator.


Illinois Governor Dan Walker at the 1973 parade. Photo by John H. White.

The parade has categorized contests for participants such as best float, and best marching band.[30] It takes place in Chicago’s Bronzeville neighborhood, starting at 35th Street [31] and Dr. Martin Luther King Drive at the southern border of the Douglas community area, south of the landmark Victory Monument. It continues south to 55th Street in Washington Park. This route covers approximately 2 miles (3.2 km). This route takes the parade through the Grand Boulevard and Washington Park community areas.[32]


Bud Billiken Parade is themed every year by the parade committee. The tradition began in 1940 when the parade organizers themed the parade “Americanism” to demonstrate patriotism in the US within the African-American community.[33] Other themes over the years:

Grand Marshal

A notable person or persons are invited each year to serve as Grand Marshal, often featuring politicians, musicians, or entertainers. Chicago native Chance the Rapper served as the Grand Marshal for the 88th annual parade in 2017. Chicago native and singer Chaka Khan served as the Grand Marshal at the 2014 parade.[51] Rapper T.I. served as Grand Marshal for the 83rd annual parade in 2012.[52]

2007 Parade

At the 78th annual parade in 2007, then–U.S. Senator Barack Obama served as the Grand Marshal for the second year in a row.[53] Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley attended, and march participants included U.S. Senator Dick Durbin, Lieutenant Governor of Illinois Pat Quinn and the Rev. Al Sharpton.[54] One float represented the Chicago 2016 Committee and included past Chicago Olympians Bob Pickens, Willie May, Diane Simpson-Bundy and Kenny Johnson as well as the son of Danell Nicholson. The Chicago Bulls‘ mascot made a guest appearance.[55]


The parade begins at 10 A.M. and ends at 4 P.M. After the parade, visitors are welcomed to stay in Washington Park for a picnic. The picnic has various festivities and vendor booths.[32] The post–parade festivities often include a concert. The 2006 parade featured Yung Joc,[56] and the 2007 parade featured Pretty Ricky.[55][57]However, it seems neither picnic included a concert.


The 2003 parade featured B2K.[20][58] The concert was free with virtually unlimited space in the park for viewing. However, the crowd became unruly causing the concert to be curtailed. Over 40 attendees were taken to hospitals as a result of injuries in the violence, including two teenagers who were shot.[59]

See also




  1. Hope, Leah (August 11, 2003). “Concert chaos raises questions of crowd safety”. ABC Inc., WLS-TV Chicago. Retrieved September 17, 2007.

Know Who your Sustainer is

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Worship your Sustainer who created you and these beings before you. Who made the earth a resting place for you, and thereby produce fruits for your sustenance:

Who created you looking like herself Ninti: (Ninti is the Sumerian goddess of life, Ninti means ‘Lady of the rib’ or ‘Lady OF Life’Sumerian Princess) and acting like herself. Ninti, a female Amunnaqu and controller of the Sdhimti Laboratory. Put on your shield of protection againat the deceivers.

Many have gone into the world, and yet still many are not yet born. Ninti is the mother of your procreation. And before Zeus, women were recognized as the mother deities. We have males born of females, yet will restrict them. All of the great prophets and leaders came through the canal of a female.

Only in the reptile family do you find a male transfrom to female and female transform to male, by nature’s call. Associate not with the man that respect not the woman.

For even that man was conceived by the woman: The “Mother” simply the “Metter” or “Matter”.

She reflects the light of a properly lit sun in wisdom. She has four periods as the four phases of the moon. The moon as you see has no light of its own, but has madss and does exist in the purest state, darkness before chaos.

Thus, her weakness comes from the man, Darkness is pure and the moon sits in darkness as an assistant to the Earth; Controlling her tides, as the moon, rightly called Luna, has an effect on the mental state on those who lean toward her the lunatic. Let not the sensitivity of the apparent weakness of the woman, alter your state of consciousness, Stay in control.

If the moon cease to pull upon the tides of this planet, it would overheat as the evening comes and be no more. If a man ceases to respond to the whims of a woman or over responds to the emotional changes of a woman, or over responds to the emotional changes of a woman, he too will overheat, transform into a lunatic, and be no more.

Gaia is her name, She has been worshipped; be they agreeable or disagreeable; Bunbuloama, Buto, Ajysyt, Aditi, Hina, Chalchiuhtlicue, Umm Attar, Maat, Nakia, Sibtu, Amaterasu, Asit, Attis, Amphitrite, Ate, Anatiis, jAndarta, Arianrod, Arinna, Kali, Artemis, Artio, Asase Ya, Arduinna, Yemaya, Ua Zit, Ashera, Asiaq, Badb Catha, Athena, Atugan, Audjal, Mother deities; In many tongues a places.

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